1) Launch Unix terminal
Using Finder, go into "Applications" and then open the "Utilities" folder.
Now open Terminal and you'll be at the Unix prompt.
2) Install Homebrew and Java (openjdk)
Homebrew is a widely used open-source software package management system for Apple macOS that makes is easy to install Java (openjdk).
Enter the following commands to install Homebrew and Java (openjdk):
url=https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/HEAD/install.sh /bin/bash -c "$(curl -fsSL $url)" brew install openjdk java --version
Verify you are running openjdk 17.0.0 or later.
If your Mac has a prior version of Java already installed, consulte the openjdk formula documentation for instructions on creating a symlink to point macOS to the new openjdk instalation.
3) Make project folder
Enter these two commands:
mkdir showtime cd showtime
The first command creates a folder called "showtime", and the second command moves you into the new folder.
4) Write some Java code
Get the sample Java code and take a look at the Swing commands that create a simple window for displaying the current time:
curl --remote-name https://centerkey.com/mac/java/ShowTime.java cat ShowTime.java
You'll see the code:
5) Compile Java program
Back at the Unix prompt, compile the Java program into a class file:
javac --version javac ShowTime.java ls -o
It is possible to run the class file directly, but that results in a poor user experience. Instead we will create a more convenient executable JAR file.
6) Make executable JAR
Before we make an executable JAR file, we need a manifest file to indicate which class contains the "main" function. Create the file:
echo "Main-Class: ShowTime" > MainClass.txt cat MainClass.txt
The resulting manifest file contains a single line:
Now use the following
jar command to create
the "ShowTime.jar" file:
jar --version jar cmfv MainClass.txt ShowTime.jar *.class ls -o
Test your executable JAR with the following command:
java -jar ShowTime.jar
The "It's Showtime!" window with the current time should display in the upper left corner of your screen.
Click the red button (marble) to exit the program.Note:
While the manual commands above for steps #5 and #6 work fine, you could automate them using Ant with a build.xml file.
7) Create installer background and application icon
The default icon for an executable JAR is a coffee cup. To add a custom
icon, we need to create an
Use the following commands to download a sample PNG image, resize the
image to appropriate dimensions for an icon, and convert it into the
curl --remote-name https://centerkey.com/mac/java/ShowTime.png sips --version sips --resampleHeightWidth 120 120 --padToHeightWidth 175 175 \ ShowTime.png --out ShowTime-background.png cp -v ShowTime-background.png ShowTime-background-darkAqua.png mkdir ShowTime.iconset sips --resampleHeightWidth 128 128 \ ShowTime.png --out ShowTime.iconset/icon_128x128.png iconutil --convert icns ShowTime.iconset ls -o
8) Create package resource folder
Use the following commands to copy the graphic files into a folder for package resources:
mkdir -p package/macos cp -v *.png *.icns package/macos
9) Build macOS application and installer
Run the jpackage tool to build the
ShowTime.app appplication and wrap
it in into an installer:
jpackage --version jpackage --name ShowTime --input . --main-jar ShowTime.jar \ --resource-dir package/macos --type pkg ls -o *.pkgNote 1:
The executable JAR file
ShowTime.jar checks in at a mere 0.001 MB,
but the installer file
ShowTime-1.0.pkg almost hits a whopping
The reason is that the installer bundles the JRE (an Apple requirement for publishing Java
programs to the Mac App Store).
When you are ready to distribute to the public, you'll want to obtain a Developer ID certificate and then sign your installer with it.
10) Try it out
Run the installer:
After completing the installation, go into the "Applications" folder and open the "ShowTime" application.
If you run into any problems, compare your terminal commands and output to:Output log
For an example of how you might distribute your installer, take a look at:Snap Backup
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"Very nice tutorial."J.H., September 18, 2018
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